I. Introduction: Thesis Statement: People should consume organic foods because they have More nutritious, No pesticides are used on them, No hormones or antibiotics are used in their production A. Major Proposition or Premise (before because): People should consume organic foods B. 1st Minor Proposition or Premise (after because): More nutritious. C. 2nd Minor Proposition or Premise (after because): No pesticides are used on them. D. 3rd Minor Proposition or Premise (after because): No hormones or antibiotics are used in their production. II. A. 1st Minor Proposition or Premise (after because): More nutritious B. Evidence: Expert Testimony: Lady Eve Balfour Philosophical Theory: Jeffrey Stephen Wicken Historical Examples: N/A Statistics: ( journeytoforever. org/farm_library/worthington-organic. pdf) Logic: The producers of non-organic food argue that the organic label is a marketing tool. It is not a statement about food safety. Nor is â€œorganicâ€ a value judgment about nutrition or quality. Organic is how it is produced. Just because something is labeled organic does not mean it is superior, safer, or more healthy than conventional foods. All foods in this country must meet the same high standards of safety regardless of their classification C. Opposition of 1st Minor Proposition/Premise: There is no evidence whatsoever that a diet high in or exclusively of organic foods is any healthier for you than a diet of conventional foods, no clear or consistent difference could be found in the nutritional value D. Evidence: Expert Testimony: Martin Hickman Philosophical Theory: Dan Glickman 2004 Historical Examples: N/A Statistics: (http://www. independent. co. uk/life-style/food-and-drink/news/organic-food-no-healthier-than-conventional-1764448. html) Logic: There is plenty of evidence however that a diverse diet, high in fruits, vegetables, whole grains and fish is healthy E. Refutation(Against) of Opposition Premise: A considerable amount of research has been conducted on the nutrient content of organic vs. conventional foods over the last century III. A. 2nd Minor Proposition or Premise (after because): No pesticides are used on them. B. Evidence: Expert Testimony: Sir (Dr. ) John Krebs. Philosophical Theory: Ned Goth Historical Examples: N/A Statistics: http://www. independent.co. uk/life-style/food-and-drink/news/organic-food-no-healthier-than-conventional-1764448. html Logic: While synthetic pesticides are prohibited in organic farming, some â€˜naturalâ€™ pesticides may still be used, and they are not necessarily less worrisome just because theyâ€™re natural. C. Opposition of 2nd Minor Proposition/Premise: Organic farmers claim to use a combination of techniques to avoid having to â€œresortâ€ to using pesticides D. Evidence: Expert Testimony: Sir (Dr. ) John Krebs Philosophical Theory: Ned Goth Historical Examples: N/A Statistics: http://ourworld. unu.edu/en/apples-have-feelings-too/ Logic: Organic pesticides pose exactly the same sort of environmental and health risks as do non-organic pesticides and often pose more risks than synthetics. E. Refutation(Against) of Opposition Premise: The difference between organic and synthetic pesticides is not their toxicity to pests, people or the environment, but rather their origin IV. A. 3rd Minor Proposition or Premise (after because): No hormones or antibiotics are used in their production B. Evidence: Expert Testimony: Sir (Dr. ) John Krebs Philosophical Theory: Ned Goth Historical Examples :N/A. Statistics: (http://www. independent. co. uk/life-style/food-and-drink/news/organic-food) Logic: All scientists said it was safe and none of the studies showed the hormone to appear in or alter the milk or meat C. Opposition of 3rd Minor Proposition/Premise: Organic milk and non-organic milk are essentially identical D. Evidence: Expert Testimony: Sir (Dr. ) John Krebs Philosophical Theory: Robert V. Tauxe, M. D Historical Examples: N/A Statistics: ABC News 20/20, How good is organic food? , February 20,2000 Logic: Hormones appear naturally in all milk, eggs and soy products F. Refutation(Against) of Opposition Premise: Conventional milk in the US is 100% free of artificial hormones and 99. 999% free of antibiotics. V. Conclusion: So is organic food better for you? Well if you consider that decreasing your toxin burden and increasing your intake of vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants can have a significant impact on health, then it certainly is. Of course, you have to be able to afford the increase in price, but it might be worth cutting out fast foods and spending your money more wisely on home-made meals.
Managing cultural diversity in hospitality industry Essay
Throughout human history, hospitality has made a great and significant impact on all cultures. The events in Sundiata and The Odyssey both show how the importance of hospitality can influence or determine oneâ€™s fate. For instance, Odysseus fate, which states that he will be returned home to be with his family, is impacted by Telemachus hospitality towards Athena. Similarly, in Sundiata, hospitality plays a major role in his path towards founding the empire. Although hospitality was a vital custom in older transitions, they also varied and were carried out differently in both books.
In present-day hospitality was treated as simply a small act of kindness towards the guest, whereas in ancient times it was an unwritten law. â€œStraight to the door he came, irked with himself to think a visitor had been kept there waiting, and took her right hand, grasping with his left her tall bronze bladed spear. Then he said warmly: â€œGreetings, stranger! Welcome to our feast. There will come time to tell your errand later.â€ (1: 150-155)â€As one can see, those who were being entertained expected to be provided with food, shelter and the basic needs.
Telemachus offered these services without questioning his guestâ€™s background and identity. In addition, Telemachus sincerity portrays him as a trustworthy and excellent host, despite having little left to offer from Penelopeâ€™s suitors. This contributed to the success of Odysseus fate, which was determined by the Gods that he would return home safely to be with his family. â€œThe tale was that your father had come home, therefore I came. I see the gods delay him but never in this world is Odysseus dead â€“ only detained somewhere on the wide sea (1: 238-239).â€
Furthermore, if Telemachus had failed to honor and acknowledge Athena disguised as the mortal Mendes, then she would not offer to guide Telemachus in bringing his father home, as well as, give him the knowledge and assertiveness needed to fulfill the fate of Odysseus. In fact, the legend of The Odyssey would never be known today, considering Odysseus would not make it home without the guidance and protection of Athena, together with the support of Telemachus.
Similarly, Sundiataâ€™s fate was already predicted before he was born and it was told that he would be one of the great rulers of Mali. Hospitality also plays a major role in his path towards founding the empire. For instance, when Sundiata and his family were exiled, they searched for places to stay but when they visited Mema, the Kingâ€™s sister welcomed them lavishly. â€œA great escort was sent to meet the travelers and a proper reception was held before Mema (Niane 36).â€ In addition, â€œThe whole Mema was at the city gate and you would have thought it was the Kingâ€™s homecoming (Niane 36).â€ This depicts hospitality at its peak. Moreover, because Sundiataâ€™s family was welcomed into the palace, he was given the opportunity to meet the King who was a great warrior and admired strength. Hence, the king trained and taught Sundiata to fight in an army and enhanced his intelligence, which in turn helped towards achieving his destiny â€“ ruling the Mali Empire. Had Sundiata not been welcomed into the palace, he would not have gained the wisdom to fight in an army and acquired the principles of a king, which once again, paved the way to making his fate an actual reality.
Although hospitality was a vital custom in older transitions, they also varied and were carried out differently. Sundiata escaped death at the hands of his host, Mansa Konkon and the guest-host relationship was changed. However, Sundiata did not show any hatred or anger towards his host. Rather, he responded in a kind and intelligent way to show the king that he is above all the deception. â€œNo king, do not accuse anybody (Niane 30), Sundiata also said, â€œIt is nearly up to three months I have been living with you and you have never up to now suggested a game of word (Niane 30-31).â€
Whereas, in the Odyssey, the suitors were being a nuisance to Telemachus and Penelope, which led to them both showing their anger towards each other. To demonstrate, it was mentioned, â€œGo feasting elsewhere, consume your own stores. Turn and turn about, use one anotherâ€™s house (2: 424-426).â€ Sundiata showed respect towards his host despite all the threats, anger and plan to end his life, whereas Telemachus vented his anger towards the suitors as they did to him. Though different, the events in both these books eventually influenced the fate of both characters in the long run.
Social impact of ICT Essay
Industries food reduce the need for human labour. 1. e. cow, milk and bucket. When cheese gets in great demand, cant milk cows myself, so get more people. But still cant keeps up! Cant mechanise cow but can the milking! Now need admin dept to manage staff!! Paper base system to collate all orders. But now big company need technology. Man who builds machine needs more men to build more machines. Etc. Technology has both positive and negative effect. 1000s of jobs have gone because of computers.
The rapid advances in computer and communication technologies have occurred during periods of considerable change in industrialized economies and although many different factors have conspired towards the generally higher levels of unemployment ICT has undoubtedly played a major role in creating new industries and jobs in general, introduction into it systems in organizations may result in: A need for staff retraining; redeployment; deskilling; regrading; redundancy; changes in job satisfaction; new job opportunities; remote/tele working; changes in career prospects.
An old fashioned secretarial job required typing skills, note taking skills, filing skills, and document organizational skills. Most managers now act as their own secretary, the manager has been reskilled and she has been made redundant. There is an argument, which suggests that traditional industrial relations will have little place in the workplace of tomorrow. As we move towards the information age, the old models of labour relations with all the assembled baggage of collective bargaining between employers and workers representative bodies will become increasingly inappropriate to the new realities of work.
According to this point of view, the very term industrial relations is itself a giveaway. It harks back to the industrial age, the time when the growth of large-scale production in hierarchically structured organisations led to a need for the collective regulation of employment relationships. The development of trade union organisations, for example, was predicated upon the existence of the factory system, bringing large numbers of workers together in a central workplace. What if this is no longer the way in which work is organised?
What if new technologies permit a new flexibility in the way work is undertaken? For much of the twentieth century, industrial relations focused on what was seen as the normative way of working. The paradigm has been that of a full-time worker (or indeed man, since historically the assumption was that the male was the main bread-winner), working under an employment contract for one employer and remaining with their company for many years or until the time came to draw the company pension.
This paradigm further was based on a clear separation between work and home spheres of life, between the hours of work and the hours of non-work and indeed also between a persons years of working and their abrupt transition into retirement. It is possible to discuss the extent to which this paradigm ever adequately reflected working life the critique has been advanced that it left out of the picture the work undertaken by women, particularly part-time and casual employment, for example. It also ignored working realities in most of the developing world.
But nevertheless for most of the developed countries, this paradigm provided a basis not only for the structuring of industrial relations but also for social protection systems and retirement pension arrangements. The argument now is that, in any case, this paradigm fails to be appropriate for a network economy where value comes from the manipulation of information and knowledge much more than from the production of material goods. In the process of change, a job is becoming redefined simply as work.
ATTs vice president for human resources James Meadows put it this way, in a quote attributed to him in the New York Times: People need to look at themselves as self-employed, as vendors who come to this company to sell their skills. In ATT we have to promote the concept of the whole work force being contingent, though most of our contingent workers are inside our walls. Jobs are being replaced by projects and fields of work, giving rise to a society that is increasingly jobless but not workless.
1 Many writers have engaged with this subject. Research on the growth of flexible working practices undertaken for the OECD identified a number of developments, including changes in the design of jobs, greater complexity, higher skill levels, greater use of team working and also increased delegation of responsibility to lower levels of staff. 2 Ulrich Klotz, from the German trade union IG Metall, has described changes in work organisation thus: Work is splintering into many forms
As the new company models proliferate, forms of work are spreading that we still refer to as atypical: part-time work, temporary work, limited contracts, telework, contract work and other forms of (pseudo) entrepreneurial work In short, work is still with us but the stable job is not. He warns that as a consequence trade unions are in danger of losing their traditional business base. 3 ICT permits both the spatial and temporal relocation of work, challenging the idea of a discrete workplace and a discrete working day. However it would be wrong, of course, to see changes in work organisation as simply the result of technology.
These changes are being driven by a number of factors. We can identify trends in management practice, including such things as the outsourcing of non-core activities and the reengineering of business processes as also contributing to workplace transformation. However, these developments are closely intertwined with developments in ICT. In an early essay, Manuel Castells suggested that there are two overarching inter-related processes at work, driving change in the workplace: the technological revolution based on microelectronics is one of these, the growing interdependence of the economic system globalisation is the other.
4 In terms of labour relations what all these changes mean, effectively, is a new implied contract between a company and a worker. The old employer/employee relationship, which offered security and reward to the individual in exchange for corporate loyalty is to go. Instead, individuals are told to take responsibility for their own working life and career, including the responsibility of ensuring that they constantly update their skills. In exchange a company undertakes to empower them in their work, by removing old-style supervisory practices and replacing these by new types of team working, based on performance management.
The old master/servant basis to the employment relationship, in other words, is replaced with something more, well, modern. This sounds a seductive idea, though it blows a gaping hole in the way in which industrial relations, institutionalised in the relationship between employers representative bodies and trade unions, have traditionally been conducted. If correct, it would inevitably lead also to major changes in social and welfare protection and employment law.
In the process, it would also leave todays trade union bodies cast up and redundant, rather in the way that antique steam engines, previously employed huffing and puffing their way through their working day, were left silent and fit only for scrap with the arrival of electricity. The question explored by this chapter is whether, and if so to what extent, the argument for the end of traditional industrial relations is justified. We will begin by exploring further the challenges which face the social partners, considering how the services they currently offer could be provided in other ways by other agencies.
We will then investigate the state of industrial relations in one particular sector which has encountered radical change in recent years, the telecommunications industry, to see what evidence for a paradigmatic shift can be found there. We will move on to consider in some detail two examples of new work organisation (call centre working and telework) and two areas where atypical working has been growing (agency work and self-employment), to ask whether these are or are not being adequately accommodated within organised industrial relations.
We will then turn to consider the degree to which the traditional industrial relations negotiating agenda has been extended by ICT. This will take us into a number of areas, including on-line rights for workers, questions of privacy and electronic surveillance and the increased relevance of copyright and intellectual property rights. We shall look at examples of how the social partners, and in particular the trade unions, are themselves making use of ICT opportunities. Finally, at the end of this journey, we shall return to the issue posed at the start of this chapter, hopefully in a better position to offer some conclusions.
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